During the last three decades of the 20th century, a lot of effort and energy went into discussing Indigenous rights and recognition. In , the largest overseas birthplace population was from the UK and Ireland. This compares with , for Pacific Island populations. The earlier arrivals from other parts of the Pacific were soon dwarfed by the size of these new immigration flows, especially from Asia. And yet, on most measures, it is super-diverse. Ageing is dominated by European Pakeha populations a median age of 41 years , while Asian arrivals and communities have a lower median age By , the country had an extensive albeit incomplete bicultural policy framework. These provide some interesting points of comparison with Australia, including the fact that the nature of New Zealand diversity has evolved rapidly with some similar — and different — outcomes.
But what of multiculturalism? It is unclear what New Zealand will develop, especially alongside biculturalism. The number who identify with orthodox Christian religions continues to decline, but those who are Buddhists, Sikhs, Hindus or Muslims are growing. Messenger Historically, geographically, culturally — there are many points of comparison between Australia and its neighbour to the east, New Zealand. These provide some interesting points of comparison with Australia, including the fact that the nature of New Zealand diversity has evolved rapidly with some similar — and different — outcomes. The size of this growth and the immigrant dependency of New Zealand is easily shown in the Census results. Colonial New Zealand was largely about migration from the UK and Ireland, the management and control of a significant Indigenous population and the exclusion of certain groups, notably Asians. The earlier arrivals from other parts of the Pacific were soon dwarfed by the size of these new immigration flows, especially from Asia. The same can be said for the temporary arrivals. The release of the initial Census data has highlighted some interesting — and intriguing — trends for New Zealand. Ageing is dominated by European Pakeha populations a median age of 41 years , while Asian arrivals and communities have a lower median age This compares with , for Pacific Island populations. However, there is one key ethnic-cultural tension point. But an important moment will come in the next decade or so when Asian people begin to outnumber Maori in New Zealand. And yet, on most measures, it is super-diverse. But there are notable differences. School-age populations tend to see a significant Polynesian presence. The new migrants were to come from China and India principally, and from a range of other countries in Africa and the Middle East. In the s, the sources of immigrants shifted from the old the UK and Ireland essentially to the new: There is a multi-party acceptance that immigration is part of the New Zealand story in the early 21st century. There was a brief hiatus in the late s as various Asian countries experienced an economic downturn and potential immigrants were put off by the negativity of local politicians. Like Canada and Australia, there is a significant Indigenous population and an immigration policy framework that is designed to recruit permanent residents who are defined by the economic and labour market requirements of the country. While anti-immigrant politics were readily apparent in the mids, they have all but evaporated after But equally intriguing are the cultural politics of New Zealand. Maori is the second most-spoken language after English, followed by Samoan, Hindi and Mandarin. Since the adoption of these immigration policies in , the impacts on the demographic shape of New Zealand have been profound. But this changed dramatically after
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