Nevertheless, traditional religious forms persist in many regions, blended with Christian elements. Quechua woman with children The struggle for land rights continues up to the present time to be a political focal point of everyday Quechua life. The various Quechua dialects are in some cases so different that no mutual understanding is possible. They domesticated potatoes and cultivate thousands of potato varieties, which are used for food and medicine. This disrupted traditional Quechua and Aymara culture based on communal ownership, but ayllus have been retained up to the present time in remote regions, such as in the Peruvian Quechua community of Q'ero.
In almost all Quechua ethnic groups, many traditional handicrafts are an important aspect of material culture. When chewed, coca acts as a mild stimulant and suppresses hunger, thirst, pain, and fatigue; it is also used to alleviate altitude sickness. In the Peruvian civil war of the s between the government and Sendero Luminoso about three quarters of the estimated 70, death toll were Quechuas, whereas the war parties were without exception whites and mestizos people with mixed descent from both natives and Spaniards. In the case of mink'a , people work together for projects of common interest such as the construction of communal facilities. In Bolivia there was a redistribution of the land to the indigenous population as their private property. Especially the case of the community of Sarayaku has become well known among the Kichwa of the lowlands, who after years of struggle were able to successfully resist expropriation and exploitation of the rain forest for petroleum recovery. Ayni is, in contrast, reciprocal assistance, whereby members of an ayllu help a family to accomplish a large private project, for example house construction, and in turn can expect to be similarly helped later with a project of their own. Nevertheless, traditional religious forms persist in many regions, blended with Christian elements. The land is usually owned by the local community ayllu and is either cultivated jointly or redistributed annually. It is based on agriculture in the lower altitude regions, and on pastoral farming in the higher regions of the Puna. Harsh conditions of exploitation repeatedly led to revolts by the indigenous farmers, which were forcibly suppressed. Quechua was not only spoken by the Incas , but in some cases also by long-term enemies of the Inca Empire. The various Quechua dialects are in some cases so different that no mutual understanding is possible. They also share many of these with the Aymara , or other indigenous peoples of the central Andes. Quechua ethnic groups also share traditional religions with other Andean peoples, particularly belief in Mother Earth Pachamama , who grants fertility and to whom burnt offerings and libations are regularly made. The disintegration of the traditional economy, for example, regionally through mining activities and accompanying proletarian social structures, has usually led to a loss of both ethnic identity and the Quechua language. Quechua was spoken by some of these people, for example, the Wanka, before the Incas of Cusco , while other people, especially in Bolivia but also in Ecuador, adopted Quechua only in Inca times or afterward. Traditionally, Quechua identity is locally oriented and inseparably linked in each case with the established economic system. Quechua woman with children The struggle for land rights continues up to the present time to be a political focal point of everyday Quechua life. This disrupted traditional Quechua and Aymara culture based on communal ownership, but ayllus have been retained up to the present time in remote regions, such as in the Peruvian Quechua community of Q'ero. Recently there have been tendencies toward nation building among Quechua speakers, particularly in Ecuador Kichwa but also in Bolivia, where there are only slight linguistic differences from the Peruvian version. This is also a result of steady migration to large cities especially to Lima , which has resulted in acculturation by Hispanic society there. This includes a tradition of weaving handed down from Inca times or earlier, using cotton, wool from llamas , alpacas , guanacos , vicunas and a multitude of natural dyes , and incorporating numerous woven patterns pallay. Foods and crops[ edit ] Quechua peoples cultivate and eat a variety of foods. Climate change is threatening their potato and other traditional crops but they are undertaking conservation and adaptation efforts. The agrarian reforms included the expropriation of large landowners,.
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